The Scramble for Africa

In the early 1800s, European nations had just little land in Africa, holding only areas along the coast. In the mid-1800s, though, Europeans had renewed its interest in Africa. This rose, in part, from a desire to create overseas empires, a movement called imperialism. European nations wanted to control lands that had raw materials they needed for their industrial economies. They also wanted to open up markets for the goods they made. Nationalism fed the drive for empires as well. A nation often felt that gaining colonies was a measure of its greatness. Racism was another reason. Europeans thought that they were better than Africans. Finally, Christian missionaries supported imperialism. They thought that European rule would end the slave trade and help them convert native peoples.

As a result of these factors, the nations of Europe began to seize lands in Africa. Technology helped them succeed. Steam engines, railroads, and telegraphs made them able to penetrate deep into Africa and still have contact with the home country. Machine guns gave them a weapon of far greater power than any African peoples possessed. Finally, discovery of quinine gave doctors a weapon against malaria, which struck Europeans. They were also helped by the lack of unity among African peoples. The events called the European “scramble for Africa” began in the 1880s. The discovery of gold and diamonds in Africa increased European interest in the continent. So that they would not fight over the land, European powers met in Berlin in 1884–85. They agreed that any nation could claim any part of Africa simply by telling the others and by showing that it had control of the area. They then moved quickly to grab land. By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia were independent of European control.

Luis Rafael Acta 10A

Before European domination, Africa had hundreds of ethnic groups and linguistic groups. They had their own traditions, culture, religion and culture. As early as the 1450s, Europeans started to have contact with Africans. However, for over 400 years, African could keep Europeans out of most Africa and they only owned 10 percent of their land because Africans used to have powerful African armies. Later on, Europeans started to compete with each other over Africa because travel books and newspapers showed them fact about Africa that intrigued their desire of exploration and adventure. After some trips planned to Africa, Europeans saw how rich Africa was so they decided to go back and do more research about them. This brought them a sense of Imperialism which is the desire of taking control of a inferior country. Europeans believed that they were superior to the Africans becuse of their skin color, this is known as racism, the belief of that one race is superior to the other. Others factors encouraging Imperialism were the European's technological superiority and the diverse languages and ethnic groups of the Africans made them easier to colonize because they were more separated and less unite.

Interest in Africa rose in the 1880 because French discovered gold in South Africa. By then, Europeans fought more over Africa because of the rich resources that benefited themselves. An agreement was made to divide Africa between the Europeans in the Berlin Conference. Later on, Africans were divided into two groups to defend themselves because the control of the Europeans was getting out of their hands. The two groups were the Zulu and the Boers.

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Saluna Chow 10a

European forces dominated Africa in the mid-1800s. Before this domination, Africans were divided into between different linguistic and ethnic groups. In the early 1450s, Europeans and Africans had contact and for 400 years, they could keep them out of most African land. In the late 1180s, Europeans only had 10 percent of the land. African newspapers and travel books created curiosity to Europeans and Americans and they fought for the exploration, navigation, and adventures through Africa. After they saw how rich the continent was, they researched more and wanted to take control of it (Imperialism). The main reason Europeans became Imperialistic were that they were racists; they believe they were superior to the Africans for their skin color. Some other factors that promoted the colonization of Africa were that Europeans were technologically superior from the Africans and that Africans had different languages and ethnic groups and that made them more diverse.

After gold was discovered in South Africa in 1886 and diamonds in 1867, Africans became very desired. Europeans were interested in them again. A treaty made in the Berlin Conference in 1884-85 said that Africa was going to be divided between the European countries. After Africa saw that all this was getting out of their control, they decided to divide themselves into two different groups in order to defend themselves. This two groups were known as the Zulus and the Boers.

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Gabriela Elias :D

In the early 1800s, Africans controlled their own trade networks and provided the trade items. During this period the European took major expeditions to the interior of Africa. Most of the European that went there were mainly missionaries or explorer that did not agreed to African slavery, in which the mainly went to discover the mysteries and adventures in Africa. However in the mid 1800s, African were dominated by the European domination in which people were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups meaning that these groups spoke more than 1000 different language. During the forces driving imperialism, the European countries had had lots of control due to the fact of the Industrial Revolution and because of the power they had. This period was a time in which the European was extremely racism and tried to gain control of some parts in Africa.
In 1884 to 1885 the Berlin Conference was made to lay down the rules for the division in Africa, in which no African ruler was invited to attend these meetings. The fact that European countries began colonizing this meant that the good they were sailing still need the raw materials from Africa so their business can continue to proceed. During this period three groups clash over South Africa, in which a war was created called the Boar War. The Boar was mainly a war between the British and the Boers, at the end of the war the Britain had won. This had caused the Europeans to make a big effort to change political and social life of the people they had conquered.

Natasha Chami


the scramble for africa~
industrialization increased the need for raw materials and new markets. nations wanted more land, to colonize because they need more stuff for industries. stronger countries dominated the political, economic, and social life of the weaker countries, AS USUAL. the industrial revolution break out a desire to own more lands. europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national greatness. europeans were racist. also they were technologically superior. in addition, they had the machine gun, the steam engine, railroads, were susceptible to malaria, and africans were not unified, which europeans used to play rival groups against each other.


The process of industrialization had increased the demands for raw materials and for markets where to sell the finished products. The way to achieve this was through controlling new territories, and this is exactly what the European nations began doing in Africa. Another factor that made Europeans turn their heads towards Africa was their desire to build an empire and show their national greatness. They knew they could achieve this through controlling other territories and peoples. Many Europeans believed that they belonged to a superior race, and that therefore they had the right to conquer other peoples such as the Africans.

Colonizing Africa did not result as difficult for the Europeans. They aided themselves in their task of conquest with the newly invented machine gun, steam boat, and locomotive. The rivalries that existed between the different ethnic groups in Africa created a disunited Africa; therefore it resulted easier for the Europeans to fight the Africans. The colonization of Africa became a race. Each country wanted to gain more territory than the other. To prevent conflict several European countries met at the Berlin conference from 1884-1885. At this conference the nations agreed that they would claim African land by notifying other nations of their claims and demonstrating their control of the claimed area.
Claudia Franjul


Africa at this time, was very rich in resources and raw materials. this caused a lot of interest for the Europeans because they were in a time were they wanted to expand. In the mid- 1800s, Europe started to gain control over African territory. But it wasn't so simple at first because they only controlled a 10% of Africa mainly on the coast, but couldn't control the inner part of the city because of the people. little by little they started to gain control of more and more land, because Africans were not really trying to stop the Europeans and the Europeans were more advanced than they were. They wanted to gain total control of Africa to show that they were superior and that they were great, and unfortunately for Africa they were on their way to achieve this.

At this time, Africa was like the main point of Europe, many European countries started to claim land were it was possible. There were to factors that intensified the interest of Europeans in Africa and was that diamonds were discovered in 1867, and then gold in 1886. Because more and more Europeans claimed African lands, they created the Berlin conference in 1884-1885, were they basically divided Africa between them, and were a country could claim the land but had to notify the others so disputes weren't created.


-Because of the Industrial Revolution many of the Europeans countries were ambitions. They wanted more resources to fuel their industrial production. Many of the countries went to Africa as a source of raw material and as a market for industrial products. So they went to Africa and imperialize them. Before the invasion of the Europeans to Africa, Africa was conquered by the African and only 10 percents was European and also the trade network of the Africans were not interfered.

-But all that changed when the Europeans started seizing land around Africa, waging war with other European nations to gain more territories or to protect them, and killing the Africans in the areas. With the Berlin conference they divided Africa and set a list of law to prevent wars between European countries. This made the African furious causing three groups to Clash the Africans, Dutch, and the British who went to war with each other during this period.

Kendrick Abreu Grullon


++Tiffani Chalas:

European countries sought out to take over African countries for the control of their resources. Imperialism took its toll and Europe had agreed it was for the best. Europe didn't want to fight over the lands in Africa so they held the Berlin Conference, which was the equal division of African lands for the European nations involved. Although this was agreed upon, struggle developed for the control of South Africa. Africans, British, and Dutch fought over South Africa and is basically the structure of South Africa today.

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