The Reformation Continues

Describe the further changes in Protestantism and the Catholic Reformation.

Protestian Reformation

--The reformation was directed by John Calvin, he was influenced by Martin Luther's teachings. Calvin wrote a book in 1536, Institutes of the Christian Religion. This book expressed his ideas that females and males were sinful by nature and that God only chooses a few people to be saved. God already knows who these few selected people are since the beginning of time, this is called predestination. Calvin and his followers moved to Geneva where he put his reformation in practice, he formed a self-governing city of 20,000 people. These people were to go to religion class every day and could not play cards nor wear bright clothing. Anyone who would disobey these rules were to be excommunicated or be imprisoned.


Catholic Reformation

--The Catholic Reformation was made possible by 3 important leaders, Ignatius of Loyola and 2 popes: Paul III and Paul IV. Ignatius was injured in a war and while he was revovering he wrote a book that was about meditation, prayer, and study called Spiritual Excercises. For 18 years he gathered many followers. the Popes formed a religious order for his followers called the Society of Jesus. these members were called Jesuits. they had to do 3 activities: 1) they founded schools throughout Europe, 2) they had to convert non-christians to catholicism, and 3) was to stop the spread of Protestiantism. these actions renewed the church from within.


By: Laura Ibert.


The Protestant Reformation was a movement to change the European Christianity; this made Protestantism a form of Christianity. It started in 1517 with the protest and writing of Martin Luther. Protestants began their separation because they saw the sale of indulgences, simony, offices in the Christian Church. Protestants called their separation from the Roman Catholic Church the Magisterial Reformation, supported by magistrates. This reformation began when Martin Luther called for a debate for the selling of indulgences. This remark began the discontent of people in Rome. Martin Luther was excommunicated. John Calvin was also a protestant, whom writings became famous between the people of Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, and Germany. During the 16th, 17th and 19th centuries Protestants had a series of wars that helped then spread throughout the world. Protestantism influences the social, political, economic and cultural life of the area around it. The ideas of Protestantism all see the Bible a form of faith and order of the religion, justification by grace not by work and priesthood of believers. They are around 350 million Protestants today.


Catholic Reformation

By: Laura I.

The Catholic Reformation was a reform to keep Catholic believers loyal to the Church, since Protestant Churches were expanding quickly. Ignatius, a Spanish noble, was an important Catholic reformer. He founded a new Church group based on a deep devotion to Jesus. The members of this group were called Jesuits. The Jesuits started schools across Europe, sent missionaries to convert people to Catholicism and they also tried to stop the spread of Protestantism. In the 1500s Pope Paul III started the Inquisition, which was a movement to find, try, and punish people who broke the rules of the Church. He also called the Council of Trent, a meeting of Church leaders, in 1545. In this meeting these doctrines, group of beliefs:
• Indulgences were valid expressions of faith,
• The Bible and Church had the same authority in establishing Church beliefs,
• Christians needed good work and faith to win salvation,
• The Church interpretation of the Bible was final.
Paul IV put the doctrines in practice. These measures help put the Church in order again.


Other Reformers
Protestantism isn't the only group that emerged during this time, another group is the Anabaptists. This group believed that only people old enough to make the decision to be Christian should be baptized. The word Anabaptist comes from a Greek word meaning "baptize again." They said that people who were baptized as children should once again be baptized as adults if that is what they truly decide. This group was viewed as radicals by both Protestants and Catholics, they persecuted them. Some survived and later on came to create the Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, Mennonites, and Bruderhof communities.

By:Michelle Pelletier

Protestantism developed in the 16th century, in Europe. It started because of the indifference in beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church. Protestantism is said to be another way of Christianity. In Protestantism, we may find three branches that developed during it, that were: The Lutheranism, formed bu Martin Luther, The Calvinism, formed by John Calvin in Switzerland and were based on his teachings were he state that god chooses several people to save, were he called this the "elect". He also state the doctrine of predestination. The last branch was the Anglicanism, formed by Henry VIII, in England. Then after a while, Protestantism started spreading around the world.


The Catholic Reformation
By: Michelle Pelletier

The Catholic Reformation was a movement made in order for the Catholic Church to reform itself. Reformers such as : Ignatius, Popes: Paul III and Paul IV, were taken place during the Catholic Reformation. Ignatius started writing a book were he state spiritual exercises, then he started gathering followers. As a result, the Pope called those pope who follow the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits. The Popes then gathered together to form the Council of Trent and developed several doctrines who were follow by the next pope, Paul IV. After several religious war, changes in social religion and political emerged. The Roman Catholic Church became more unify as a result of the Council of Trent. Catholic Church's moral declined so the state and monarchs gained more power.


The Protestantism Reformation

The main character of this movement was John Calvin whom was influenced by Martin Luther, he wanted to influence the Protestant movement as fall as Luther in order to fulfill his dream. He wrote a book that gives out ideas of God, human nature and the salvation it was like a theology of the Protestant. During this movement he changed the government by the theocracy one in which a religious leader governed, with this many protestant asked Calvin to be the head, and while he was in the throne everyone have to attend to religion class.

The Catholic Reformation

During this movement the mainly head of this were Paul III and Paul IV, they change the form of the church focusing more on the spiritual matter. During this period they called a council of Church leaders to meet in the Trent where they changed several doctrines like:
• The Bible was the final book.
• Christian in order to be save they needed good works and faith.
• Indulgence was banned.

Paul III

Protestant Reformers

- The Anabaptists were a religious group who believed that people should be baptized as adults, in order to decide whether they wanted to be baptized or not, and that those who were baptized as children should be re baptized as adults. Catholics and Protestants persecuted Anabaptists because they saw them as a threat.

Women during the Reformation

Some women played important roles during the early years of the Reformation. Marguerite de Navarre, sister of Francis I of France, protected John Calvin during the many years of persecution while he lived in France. Other noblewomen, such as Katherina Zell, had much influence. Other women, such as Martin Luther's wife, Katherine von Bora, had a more behind the scenes role. Although respecting Luther's position, she argued that women should have more rights in the marriage, equal to men.

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