The Indo Europeans

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Topics:

  • What are Indo-Europeans(Luis Restituyo)
  • Migration (Steven Alvarez)
  • Language (Lily Sanchez)
  • Hittite Empire(Gabriela Elias)
  • Hittites Adaption
  • Hittites Chariots and Iron Technology (Kendrick)
  • Aryans Transform India(Claudia)
  • Aryans Caste System(Kanya Duran)
  • Aryan Kingdoms Arise

What are Indo-Europeans?

The Indo-Europeans were a group of nomadic people that probably came from the steppes.
These people migrated into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and mixed with the people that already lived there. These people might have left their homelands because of wars or changes within their environment.
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Indo-Europeans Migrate

Indo-Europeans migrated into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and interact with peoples living there. The languages of the Indo-Europeans were the ancestors of many of the modern languages of Europe, South Asia, English, and Spanish. Where the Indo-European tribes settled can be tell by their languages. There is no reason why the Indo-Europeans left the steppes. Migrations, outward in all direction, happened in waves.

Language Influence

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, Iran, and northern India, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia. Attested since the Bronze Age, in the form of Mycenaean Greek and Anatolian languages, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the longest recorded history after the Afro-Asiatic family.

The languages of the Indo-European group are spoken by approximately three billion native speakers, the largest number of the recognized families of languages. Suggestions of similarities between Indian and European languages began to be made by European visitors to India in the 16th century. The various subgroups of the Indo-European language family include ten major branches, which include Germanic languages (i.e English) and Italic languages (i.e Spanish).

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Of the top 20 contemporary languages in terms of native speakers according to SIL Ethnologue, 12 are Indo-European: Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Bengali, Russian, German, Marathi, French, Italian, Punjabi and Urdu, accounting for over 1.6 billion native speakers. Membership of these languages in the Indo-European language family is determined by genetic relationships, meaning that all members are presumed to be descendants of a common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European. Membership in the various branches, groups and subgroups or Indo-European is also genetic, but here the defining factors are shared innovations among various languages, suggesting a common ancestor that split off from other Indo-European groups. For example, what makes the Germanic languages a branch of Indo-European is that much of their structure and phonology can so be stated in rules that apply to all of them. Many of their common features are presumed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, the source of all the Germanic languages.

To the evolutionary history of a language family, a genetic "tree model" is considered appropriate only if communities do not remain in effective contact as their languages diverge.

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Hittite Empire

The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia ca. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height surrounding a large part of Anatolia, north-western Syria about as far south as the mouth of the Litani River, and eastward into upper Mesopotamia. After ca. 1180 BC, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some surviving until as late as the 8th century BC.

The Hittite kingdom was commonly called the Land of Hatti by the Hittites themselves. The fullest expression is "The Land of the City of Hattusa". The Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the same region until the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, and spoke a non-Indo-European language called Hattic. The Hittites themselves referred to their language as Nesili apparently reflecting a high concentration of Hittite speakers in the ancient city of Kanesh. Many modern city names in Turkey are first recorded under their Hittite names, such as Sinop and Adana.
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Hittite Chariots and Iron Technology

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The Hittities had a great knowledge of war technology. They conquered Egyptians with there superior chariots and iron weapons. There chariot were so great because it was light and easy to maneuver. The structure of the chariot is two wheels and a wooden frame covered with leather and was pulled by two horses. With the chariots and there iron weaponry. They were unstoppable with the chariots. They won a lot of victories with these military unit and there knowledge of ironworking, which most of the civilization on that time didn’t know the process of purifying the iron and working it to a weapon.

Aryans Transform India

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In about 2000 B.C., the Aryans, who were an Indo-European nomadic group, established in the Indus River valley of India.

As Aryans settled in the area, they left behind their nomadic life style and developed agriculture. These people also began to build up a political and social structure. In the political aspect, they had a chief or king who ruled the area. In the social aspect, Aryans divided their people into four social classes. These social classes were later added more subdivisions, creating India’s caste system. The Aryans spoke an indo-European language that would influence India’s language. These people were polytheistic and had sacred religious books called the Vedas. These books would become the basis of India’s main religion, Hinduism.

A Caste System Develops

The Caste System

About 1500BC, powerful nomadic warriors known as Aryans appeared in northern India.
The warriors were from Central Asia, but managed to overcome the Himalayas by finding lower passes in the mountains, such as the Khyber Pass in Pakistan. The Aryans conquered the Dravidians of Central India and imposed their social structure upon them.
The Aryans divided their society into separate classes, structured classes know as The Aryan Caste System.
Castes were unchanging groups. A person born into one caste never changed castes or mixed with members of other castes. Caste members lived, ate, married, and worked with their own group.
At the top of the caste system were the Brahmin – the priests, teachers, and judges. Next came the Kshatriya (KUH SHAT REE YUHZ), the warrior caste. The Vaisya caste (VEEZ YUHZ) were the farmers and merchants, and the Sudras, were craftworkers and laborers.These four mentioned castes known as the Varnas, the major group of the caste.

The for major castes emerged fromPurusha(the first human being).
The Brahmins were his mouth,the Kshatriyas the arms,Vaishyas the legs and the Shudras the feet.
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The untouchables were the outcastes, or people beyond the caste system.
Their jobs or habits involved “polluting activities” including:

*Any job that involved ending a life, such as fishing
*Killing or disposing of dead cattle or working with their hides.

*Any contact with human emissions such as sweat, urine, or feces. This included occupational groups such as sweepers and washermen.


*People who ate meat. This category included most of the primitive Indian hill tribes.

Untouchables were often forbidden to enter temples, schools and wells where higher castes drew water.
In some parts of southern India, even the sight of untouchables was thought to be polluting. The untouchables forced to sleep during the day and work at night. Many untouchables left their rigid social structure by converting to Islam, Buddhism, or Christianity.
The Caste System has been illegal in India for more than fifty years, but it continues to shape people’s lifestyle . The Indian government has provided the Harijan:a term now popularly used in place of untouchable, with specific employment privileges, and granted them special representation in the Indian parliament, which as well has created controversies among the other castes because of such privilege.
Although, this has been legally banned, this has expanded all over the region of India and Asia and it is still used in modern-days being a topic on discussion at international conventions and conferences such as The United Nations Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance to be held in Durban, South Africa during August 28 and September 1, 2001", behalf the statements of “classicist,racist and Nazism”

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