The Hundred Years´ War and the Plague

Describe the plague and the Hundred Years' War and the effects they had on Europe.

The Bubonic Plague. By: Michelle Pelletier Patrone

During the Hundred Years' War, people began to catch a terrible sickness that was spreading along Mongol trade routes through Central Asia to both China and Western Europe beginning in 1328 a.d. This sickness was called the bubonic plague. The Bacteria, which is known as the bacterium Yersinia pestis, caused the plague, infecting people when infected fleas bit them. Bubonic plague was one of the most feared diseases of the ancient and medieval worlds. The Bubonic Plague caused a fever and black spots on your chest and sometimes great big black swellings on your armpits and at the top of your legs; it’s also known as the Black Death. The first time people got the Bubonic Plague was in Constantinople. Later the plague spread to Europe. Then it outbreak in China or Central Asia and soon spread across the Mongol Empire to West Asia, finally killing people in North Africa and in France, England, Germany and Italy. This plague killed about one out of every three people in Europe.


acral_gangrene_due_to_plague.jpg<—Hum FOOOOO!!!!! :s

Also, before the Black Death that occured in 1328 A.D., there was a similar event that occured in 541 A.D. and lasted until 750 A.D., known as the Plague of Justinian. This plague was named after the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian i, who was the ruler during the time this disease emerged and also that he himself had the disease. This bubonic plague is also credited for contributing to the appearance of the Black Death in the 14th Century. This pandemic reached as far as the Black Death, striking central and south Asia, North Africa and Arabia, and Europe as far north as Denmark and as far west as Ireland. This pandemic is known to have originated in Ethiopia or Egypt, and later spread northward towars the metropolitan area of Constantinople. Many historians say that it spread because the city of Constantinople imported large amounts of grain from Egypt in order to supply food for the people, and the grains were sometimes transported through grain ships, which contained rats that further spread the bacteria. Because the grains and rats were contaminated by the disease, the people that were in touch with the trade were eventually contaminated as well.
The consequences of this pandemic are blurry, but besides the amount of deaths, a major consequence was that it caused Justinian to lose a ¨gamble¨ he made and lost Italy during the war. Also, this pandemic killed about 40%-50% of Europe´s population, about 100 million people around the world.

A very known image of the Plague of Justinian

Hundred Years' War. By: Michelle Pelletier Patrone

The Hundred Years’ War was known as the last big war during the medieval time. The Hundred Years’ War was a series of conflicts fought between kings, but also nobles. The Hundred Years War was based on many wars, battles, and blockades that went on for many years, from 1337-1453, England had an interest in the industry of Flanders and France was against England. England had better troops than France and it has a more efficient government, but many soldiers were willing to participate in France to get rich in the process. Even though neither side won completely, the war ended with two nations at the end of it.

  • Here are some phases of the war:
  1. Edward III's War (Edwardanian's War)
  2. The Black Prince's War
  3. The De Guesclin Period
  4. Hiatus( based on a truce)
  5. The Lancastrian Phase / Apperance of Joan of Arc
  6. The French Revival
  • Battles:
  1. The Battle of Sluys, 1340
  2. The Battle of Crecy, 1346
  3. The Siege of Calais, 1347
  4. The Black Death, 1348-1350
  5. The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
  6. The Battle of Agincourt, 1415
  7. The Battle of Orleans, 1429

Causes of the War

The English king controlled much of France, specially the fertile South. These lands had come under control of the English when Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England in the mid-12th century. There was constant fight about the French-English frontier, and the French kings always had to fear an English invasion from the South.
As a response, the French allied with the Scots in an arrangement that was carried on into the 18th century. The English faced the French from the south and the Scots from the north.
The French could not tolerate the idea that Edward III might become King of France. French lawyers brought up some old Frankish laws, the so-called Salic law, which stated that property (including the throne) could not descend through a female. The French then gave the crown to Philip of Valois, a nephew of Philip IV. However, Edward III could claim the throne of France if he wished to. Edward was determined to fight France, and his subjects were more than ready to support their young (only 18 years old at the time) king.

The first half of the Hundred Years War was catastrophic for the North as well as the rest of France.
Destructive fighting disorganized the economy; there were awful plagues (at least a third of the population of both England and France died in 1348 in the Black Death), and violent and bloody revolts in which peasants sacked nobles' houses and castles.

In England, the Hundred Years War strengthen the central monarchy that was already in place and feudalistic practices declined even more, but it also gave a rise in the importance and power of parliament. France also reduced feudalism within the country and returned more power to the monarch.

By: Laura

Effects of the Plague

The plague also reflected his effect in the economic and social side of Europe. Some effects are:

  • Trade decreses
  • The population in the town went down
  • Rumors about blaming the Jews for bringing the plague
  • Jews were sacred all around Europe
  • The church didint kept the same position and prestige

Definition for Bubonic Plague: The term "bubonic plague" was often used synonymously for plague, but it does in fact refer specifically to an infection that enters through the skin and travels through the lymphatics, as is often seen in flea-borne infections

by: ELiecer

Many people were so dumb shocked by the plague that they literally went completely paranoid. Most cases included parents leaving their sick kids fearing that they too would get the terrible plague. The plague also took major part in decreasing the prestige of the church. When people would go to the only place they knew right(the church) and saw that the pope or god wasn't taking the plague away, these naive civilians lost all of their faith in the catholic church. - Tiffani Chalas

A church Divided Minerva Espejo
The 1300s were years filled with disasters like the Bubonic Plague and The Hundred Years’ War but some believe that the Age of Faith still seemed strong taking apart that the Church lost prestige when people saw that prayer after prayer they were still infected with the plague, more on priests abandoned their duties. On top of that both the pope and the Church had ‘’issues’’.

Pope and King Collide
In 1300, when Pope Boniface VIII tried to enforce his papal authority on kings as previous popes had, King Phillip IV of France thought that papal authority wasn’t alleged over French Bishops. ‘’On November 18, 1302, Boniface issued one of the most important papal bulls of Catholic history: Unam sanctam. It declared that both spiritual and temporal powers were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church.’’ ( Wikipedia =) ).

At this, one of Philip’s ministers said ‘’my master’s sword is made of steel, the pope’s is made of [words].’’ Philip held the pope prisoner and planned to take him to France for trail, but Boniface was rescued. A month later the pope died and never again popes would try to enforce power over monarchs to obey him.

Avignon and the Great Schism
In 1305, after his confrontation with the now dead pope, Philip VI persuaded the College of Cardinals to choose a French archbishop as the new pope. The new pope called Clement V moved from Rome to the city of Avignon in France.

The change of Avignon for Rome weakened the Church. When reformers tried to change it as is was the result was worst because Pope Gregory XI died during his visit to Rome in 1378. The College of Cardinals then met in Rome to choose the new pope, as they discussed they heard someone screaming his/her desire for a Roman or at least an Italian pope. The Cardinals announced Pope Urban VI (Italian) was chosen. But they regretted to have chosen him, they though he had an arrogant personality and a passion for reform, this caused the cardinals to elect a second pope some months later. They chose Robert of Geneva, who later changed his name to Clement VII. There were now two popes, each with the desire of excommunicating the other. Clement VII (French pope) lived in Avignon while Urban VI (Italian pope) lived in Rome. This began to divide the Church even more and was known as the Great Schism or division.

In order to fix this in 1414, the Council of Constance in its attempt of ending the Great Schism chose a single pope. Now there were three popes: Urban VI (Italian living in Rome), Clement VII (French living in Avignon) and the third pope (Alexander V?) elected by an earlier council at Pisa. When the Holy Roman Emperor decided to get in, with his and the council’s help all three popes were forced to resign. In 1417 Martin V was chosen as the new pope by the Council, this ended the Great Schism, but all the past events left papacy very weakened.

Scholars Change Church Authority
Papacy was also challenged by an Englishman, John Wycliffe. He stated Jesus Christ was the true head of the Church and not the pope, and that he was offended by the wealth many clergy displayed and that they shouldn’t own land or wealth, further he taught that the Bible by itself was the final authority in Christian life, not the pope. Wycliffe spread his ideas with an English translation of the Bible. Influenced by Wycliffe, Jan Hus (a professor in Bohemia now part of the Czech Republic), taught the Bible had a bigger authority over the pope. Jan Hus was excommunicated in 1412, then in 1415 after the Church was looking for him he was burned at the stake.

Joan of Arc
In 1420, after the English and French signed a treaty stating that Henry V would get the French crown right after the death of the French king Charles VI. Nine years later, a French teenage peasent girl name Joan of Arc felt touched by God to help France from its English conquerors. On May 7, 1429, the young 14 year old girl led the French army into battle near Orleans. The seige of Orleans was broken and Joan led the French to victory. In 1430 she was captured by English allies who turned her over ot the English, who in turn turned her over to the Church. She was condemned as a witch and burned on the stake on May 30, 1431. The French king CHarles VII did nothing to save her.

The Hundred Years' War was a conflict from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne,. The conflict lasted 116 years but had several periods of peace, before it ended. The Valois won.

After the hundred years war, Europe suffered many destruction of farms, cities, and resources. The taxes in France and England were raised for war expenses, making citizens to revolt.

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