Tang and Song China

Describe the achievements of the Tang and Song dynasties.

Scholar Officials (Civil Service)

By: Claudia Franjul

The idea of civil service was first expressed by Confucius when he said that education could transform a humbly born person into a gentleman. In civil service educated civilians carry out government activities. What was important about civil service is that in order to become part of it, the applicants had to pass tests different subjects, but in order to do this they had to receive an extended formal education. The first Chinese dynasty to use civil service was the Han dynasty. However, civil service was kept throughout the following dynasties, including the Tang dynasty.

By the time of the Tang dynasty, civil service was weak. I believe that it was so possibly because the tests of that period had become easier and so any unprepared or scarcely prepared person could pass them and therefore become part of civil service and government. To strengthen civil service, the Tang dynasty expanded the tests and made them tougher. As a result of this, the applicants who passed the tests were actually very well prepared and intelligent. This meant that a competent class was ruling china. This would ultimately take China to reach the high levels of development it reached at the time.

Something I don’t like about civil service is that despite the fact that anyone could take the tests, only the wealthy were able to pass them, because they were able to pay the needed education. In my opinion, the government should have had created schools in rural areas where the poor who wanted could go and receive the needed education for taking the tests.

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Trading and Foreign Contacts

by:
Kanya Duran

Behalf the Tang Dynasty the territorial trading flux was thriving, they with the support of the imperial armies kept shielded the Silk Road, which was the main junction to the West area, unfortunately due to the fact of gradual series of invasions from Muslims, Tag Dynasty ebbed from the throne by the middle of the eight century A.D. But in 960 a new power arises the Song Dynasty which facing the turmoil of turmoil over the routes, they improved the reliant on the over seas activity of commerce, these brilliant idea, not just affected a branch of it's thrive.

The development and use of the magnetic compass which made the sailing boats go furthermore than their expected targets, heading southeast, reaching coast lines of Japan, Vietnam,and Korea; the fluctuating trading brought by the foreigns alliances and fusions, not just by it's physical objects but social-culturally, religions were adduce heading course at Buddhism. Now by the new manners, attitudes and costumes these traders had, even some of the foreigner merchants established themselves and their families attracted by the new ambient and gradually these scenarios were penetrating Song's culture, as well as other cultures such as Christianity spread and won followers along the region.

The most important thing that I appreciated is that they didn't stuck in, they faced through a lot of changes and even though they just didn't mend it, and kept doing what they had to do, the improved it, the developed it and not just that they spread their knowledges abroad the most important region. It's not history as a fact, is a deed that tells us how an error that big, a scenario so bad, is bringing on in its a better scene, a better view. Millions of people moved from their nature ground to experience new things, to survive, to seek happiness, and as the changes shocked waving, they learned and new how to move on.

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Levels of Society

By: Steven Alvarez

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Gentry was the upper class. A class of powerful, well-to-do people, made of scholar-officials and their families. Below the gentry was an urban middle class including merchants, shopkeepers, skilled artisans, minor officials. Laborers , soldiers, and servants were at the bottom of urban society. The peasants, who lived in the countryside, toiled for wealthy landowners.
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China's Agriculture

Agriculture is an important economic sector of China. China ranks first in worldwide farm output, primarily producing rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barely, cotton, oilseed, pork, and fish.
Beginning in about 7,500 BC with classical millet agriculture, China's development of farming over the course of its history has played a key role in supporting the growth of what is now the largest population in the world.
China's arable land supports over 20% of the world's population. Of this approximately 1.4 million square kilometers of arable land, only about 1.2% permanently supports crops and 525,800 square kilometers are irrigated.
While most years China's agricultural production is sufficient to feed the country, in down years, China has to import grain.
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-gabriela elias:)

The Jimi System

The Jimi System during the Tang and Song dynasties was a model of Chinese administrative units established for foreign ruler or chief that were either militarily put down, self-subdued and naturalized. In general terms, it was an organization system designed for rulers and figures to receive their duties from a central authority.

The system mainly consisted in a three-level units. These were the command area, prefecture, and county. They were collectively known as the "loose control administrative units".

[Lily Sanchez]

China during the Tang Dynasty

Here is an informational video on China during the Tang Dynasty. Parts 2 and 3 can be found with the video url.

Establishments

The Li family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy that was during the reign of the Sui emperors. Li Yuan later became Emperor of Gaozu of Tang he was the Duke of Tang and former governor of Taiyuan when other government officials were fighting against bandit leaders in the invation of the Sui Empire that was caused by a failed Korean campaign. With prestige and military experience he later rose in rebellion along with his son Li Shimin and his equally militant daughter and Princess Pingyang who raised her own troops and commanded them. In 617, Li Yuan occupied Chang'an a relegating Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or a retired emperor and father of the present emperor. With the news of Emperor Yang's murder by his general Yuwen Huaji on June 18, 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang.
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**By> Eliecer **

Lose Power

The Tang dynasty decline was caused by some factors such as the increase of taxes, the suppression of the peasants, and the attacks of incoming invaders. With the taxes rising in the Tang dynasty to have enough money to pay the military which still wasn't enough made life of peasants almost impossible to withstand. Because how hey treated and acted during this period the citizen felt like if they need to rebel for this unfair treaty causing internal damages to the Tang Dynasty. The last reason was the invasion of Muslim to this area causing mayor damage and taking advantage of there weak state causing it to finally fall.

PS: there is no point on putting your name at the bottom of your post u can still see it with history and it confuses too.

*Science and Technology**

By: Ely

Shen Kuo (1031–1095) and Su Song (1020–1101) embodied the spirit of early empirical science and technology in the age of the Song Dynasty. Shen is famous for discovering the concept of true north and magnetic declination towards the North Pole by calculating a more accurate measurement of the astronomical meridian, and fixed the calculated position of the pole star that had shifted over the centuries.Shen was made famous for his written description of Bi Sheng(毕升; 990–1051) , the inventor of movable type printing in the 11th century.Su was most famous for his hydraulic-powered astronomical clock tower.

Although literary references for mechanical revolving repositories and book cases of Buddhist temples trace back to at least 823 during the Tang Dynasty, they came to prominence during the Song Dynasty.However, there were nine prominently known revolving repositories during the Song period, and one of them was even featured in an illustration of Li Jie's book Yingzao Fashi.

In the field of manufacturing textiles, Joseph Needham (1900–1995) wrote that the Chinese invented the quilling-wheel by the 12th century, and wrote the mechanical belt drive was known since the 11th century.

For printing, the mass production of paper for writing was already well established in China. The papermaking process had been perfected and standardized by the Han Dynasty court eunuch Cai Lun (50–121) in 105, and was in widespread use for writing even by the 3rd century.

The Song Dynasty was the world's first government in history to issue paper-printed money — the banknote (see Jiaozi and Huizi). Toilet paper had been in general use in China since the 6th century, paper bags for preserving the flavor of tea leaves by the 7th century,and by the Song Dynasty government officials who had done a great service were rewarded by the court with gifts of paper-printed money wrapped in paper envelopes.

Wenmu signifyied the first Chinese use of gunpowder in a battle. During the Song Dynasty the pound lock was first invented in 984 by the Assistant Commissioner of Transport for Huainan, the engineer Qiao Weiyo.

During the Song Dynasty period, not only was the economical and political system restored and improved, but a wave of innovating and new technological devices were created to facilitate life,express ideas, entertainment, battle and exploring of new lands. Much of their inventions are highly important and used by us now days. They have infleunced us and caused marvelous things to occur throughout history. We should hail to them for creating these inventions that permitted us to develop and change the world.

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