Self-Rule for British Colonies

An English and French Canada

The first European country to colonize Canada was France. These Europeans tended to live among Native Americans and eventually intermarried with some Native Americans. Canada however, was taken over by Great Britain in 1763 after it defreated France in the French and Indian War. The remaining French lived in the lower St. Lawrence Valley.

Eventually problems developed among the French and Britains due to religious and cultural differences. Both groups pressed Britain for a greater voice in governing their own affairs. In the hopes of resolving the problems between the French Canadians and the English Canadians, the British Parliament created Upper Canada (now Ontario) where the English-speaking majority would live and Lower Canada (now Quebec) where the French-speaking majority would live. Each province was entitled to its own elected assembly.

Erialbania Lopez

French/English Canada and the Durham report

There were religious and cultural differences in Canada, between the mostly Roman Catholic French people and the mostly protestant English people. Both of these groups wanted Britain to manage their problems by their own, so to resolve both issues the parliament divided Canada into two new provinces lower Canada (being French) and upper Canada (being English).

In the early 1800s, the middle class professionals of both provinces began to demand for economic and political reforms. These kinds of demands in Lower Canada were mainly because of some resentment from the French toward the British rule. In 1839, Lord Durham, a reform minded statesmen, sent a report to parliament saying that the two Canadian provinces should be joined once again into one so that the French would slowly mix with the dominant English culture.
-Luis Restituyo

Australia and New Zealand

Britain conquered Australia and New Zealand in 1769, although they thought it was uninhabited it really was by Aborigines. Britain started out using Australia’s land as a second prison (a penal colony), because England’s prisons were too overcrowded. Later on free British people started settling in both Australia and New Zealand, raising and exporting wool became its biggest business. Settlement in New Zealand grew more slowly. This was because Britain didn’t colonize it in respect of the Maori who lived there. In a treaty the Maori accepted British rule in exchange for recognition of their land rights. Like the Canadians, the people of Australia and New Zealand wanted to rule themselves but also wanted to remain in the British Empire. During the early 1900s, both Australia and New Zealand developed their own forms of government and became dominions.
The native people and those non Europeans were not part of such growth being developed in both colonies. As Australian settlement grew more Aborigines died of diseases or because they were simply killed. Because of such events, the Maori became discontent with the new settlers. From 1845 to 1872, the colonial government fought the Maori in a series of wars. Because of the amount of advantages the British had over them, the Maori had no choice but relocate in a remote part of the country.
-gabriela j

Effects of the Durham Report

The 1837 Rebellions in Canada reflected the class and national distinctions in Britain's North American Colonies, as well as the aspirations of the population for democracy. The rebellions were ruthlessly crushed, however the colonial authorities knew that they could not maintain the status-quo and sent Lord Durham to Canada to report on the situation. Durham's report led to fundamental changes in the colonial relationships and contributed to the constitutional development that led to the founding of the country of Canada.

The general conclusions of the report ("Report on the Affairs of British North America") that pertained to self governance were enacted in Australia and New Zealand and other mostly ethnically British colonies.
The report became a sort of Magna Carta for representative self government even for remote places like Saint Helena.

- Lily Sanchez

Self-Rule for British Colonies
Britain allowed self-rule in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand but delayed it for Ireland. Great Britain had many colonies around the world. These included outposts in Africa and Asia. Great Britain managed trade with the local people of these area, but they did't had much influence over the people as a large mass. Although in the other colonies such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand they dominated much of its native population. These colonies moved on as Britain industralized and prospered. Some of these colonies were becoming strong enough to stand up for themselves.
-Kenny R. Gomez


-Australia and New Zeland-

Britain colonized Australia with convicted criminals. Prisons in England were overly crowded. To solve this probem, they established here a penal colony. After their release, the prisoners, could buy land and settle. Eventually a wave of free British settlers came to Australia and New Zeland.
Offers of cheap land, to encourage immigration, caused a rise in population and even more after a gold rush. The British weren't in much interest of colonizing New Zeland, they very much respected the Maori's land rights, this were the Polynesian people who had settled there around A.D. 800. Then a bunch of missionaries started to arrive there, in order to convert them to Christianity. The sudden invasion of foreigners caused conflicts. The Brtish wanted to annex them, so they appointed a governor to negotiate. A treaty was signed, this meant that now they were under British rule. Colonists in New Zeland and Australia wanted to start being self- governing but still be part of the British Empire. So, they created parliamentray forms of government and a series of political reforms. Sadly, they started excluding the natives of that land, the Maoris. As always, diseases borught from the outside killed many. Tensions grew, and was continued by nnay wars between the two groups, but because of the small number of natives left and the advanced weapons the europeans had,they were not only defeated but also driven away from were they loved.

The problems with French and English Canada was their cultural differences and religous disputes. Both groups pressed Britain for a greater voice in governing their own affairs. They fixed this problem by dividing it into two, the North and the South. The North or Upper Canada had an English-speaking majority. The South or Lower Canada had a French-speaking majority so basically they got their own culture in the location they were.
The Durham report was a report saying the problems the divisions had caused. First upper and lower Canada should be reunited as the Province of Canada, and British immigration should be encouraged. Second, colonists in the provinces of Canada should be allowed to govern themselves in domestic affairs.
- Jonathan Vargas

Canada was, before all else, home to many Native American people until France colonized it. Britain would then take possession of it in 1763 after defeating France in the French and Indian War. The French who remained in Canada mostly inhabited the lower St. Lawrence Valley. After Canada came under British rule, many English-speaking colonists began to migrate to it. Many were from Great Britain while the others were Americans whom had been loyal to Britain after the American Revolution. Being from to different ethnicities, the British settled separately from the French along the Atlantic seaboard and the Great Lakes. The French and the English-speaking colonist had a little more than a quarrelsome relationship. There were many religious and cultural differences between the predominantly Roman Catholic French and the mainly English- speaking colonists in Canada. In 1791, The British Parliament tried to appease both sides and solve their issues by creating two new Canadian provinces: Upper Canada (now-a-day Ontario) contained the the English-speaking majority and Lower Canada (now-a-day) contained the French-speaking majority.
This settlement temporarily eased tensions however they were not quelled them and the two sides were at it once again. Finally the British decided to send Lord Durham, a reform-minded statesmen, to investigate. In 1839, he pleaded Parliament to consider his two major reforms. In Canada he had determined that Upper and Lower Canada should be melded into the Province of Canada and that the British should be encouraged to immigrate to Canada, that way the French would gradually become a part of the dominant English culture. Secondly, colonists should be allowed to govern themselves in domestic matters. By the mid-1800s Canadians had begun to believe that Canada needed a central government because it would be better able to protect the interest of its inhabitants against the U.S, whose territory had extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Canada would then evolve into the Dominion of Canada, making it self-governing in domestic affairs while still being part of the British empire.
-Genesis A. Landestoy

Self-Rule in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland

Canada was originally inhabited by Red Indians. It was later first colonized by the French, who lived among the Native Americans, and intermarried. Later it was colonized by the British, who defeated France in the French and Indian War. Yet, there still remained French people and Canada and the country was divided into French and English-speaking parts. Upper-Canada was occupied by the English-speaking and Lower-Canada by the French-speaking. Canadians still thought they needed a central power to protect their interests and so formed the Dominion of Canada to self-govern domestic affairs. Great Britain also claimed New Zealand and part of Australia. In New Zealand, the sea captain, James Cook, was greeted by the Maori, a group of Native Americans. In Australia, he found himself also meeting the sparse population of Aborigines. Although the British had colonized these countries, they each wanted to govern themselves, and so created parliamentary forms of government. The Irish were the last to be colonized by the English, which was given to the English by the pope. Once they were able to realize they wanted to be independent, the Irish had two forms of opposition. One, which was independence for Ireland, and the other, the idea of home rule. In the end, Britain divided Ireland and granted home rule to southern Ireland, and British rule to northern Ireland.

-Betsy Rodriguez

Different points of view

All of Great-Britain’s colonies (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland) had been inhabited by Native peoples before they were colonized. Canada was taken control of by the French at first, who had settled the area between the 1600s and the 1700s. The British took control of Canada when they won the French and Indian War. Canada was divided into two groups, the English speaking and French speaking peoples. Their vast cultural differences led them to separate. Later on, however, they joined to become a dominion. Australia and New Zealand were colonized in a different way. They were claimed as British lands in 1769 and 1770. They were thought to be uninhabited, and since their prisons were overcrowded, they turned these colonies into penal colonies, were they sent all these criminals. The aborigines that lived in the area were killed by the colonists. Ireland also had a different perspective in British colonialism. This was due to the fact that these people had this cultural bondage, and since the pope granted Ireland to the British in 1100s, they felt this resentment to them. They were then divided in religious means, half being protestant and the other being catholic. The catholic part became independent while the other was added to Britain.

-Gaby H. (:

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