Luther Leads the Reformation

Analyze the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation.

During the 10th century, the Catholic church was a major influence in the western and northern parts of Europe. Many people still criticized the church, although the changes it made during the Middle Ages. The rise of the Renaissance, which emphasized in the individual, and the challenge of some ters towards the Church led to a new movement for religious reform. Among the causes of the Protestant reformation, we

a) The questioning of the values of the Church, due to the Rennaisance. Also,the fact that no longer people had to go to church to listen to the bible, since the printing press aided the spread of these sayings.

b) European monarchs started challenging the Church's power and said that it must not be the supreme power in Europe. Apparently, some leaders didn't have as much respect for the pope and saw him as an outside force, challenging his authority.

c) In the economic side, many European monarchs were jealous of the Church's richness. Also, people were tired of having to pay taxes to the church.

d) Also, people who critisized the church believed it to be highly corrupt. Many of the popes of the time were patrons of art and were very extravagant when it came to personal pleasures. Also, priests and other lower members of the clergy broke many of their religious vows. Also, it was controversial that the church was now selling indulgences.

Among the effects of the Protestant reform we have:

a) The excommunication of Martin Luther by pope Leo X after he did not take back everything he had said and started gaining many followers.

b) Creation of a new religious group, the Lutherans.

During the rule of Edward VI, son of the deceased Henry VIII of England, he was guided by Protestant advicers, who introduced Protestant changes into the English Catholic Church. However, his sister Mary returned the Church to it's original catholic state. After her deat, her sister Elizabeth took charge, and she was decided to restore the Protedtant church in England. Then, the Parliament decided to set up the Anglican church, who would have the English monarch as it's head.

The protestant reformation was a Christian movement in which they looked to reform practices of the Catholic Church. One of the main causes was the sale of indulgences that is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven. This all started when Johann Tetzel, a papal commissioner for indulgences, was sent to Germany by the Pope to sell indulgences to rebuild the Basilica in Rome. In 1517 Martin Luther wrote an objection protesting about how the church ministers were selling indulgencies, this came to be known as the 95 theses. In this thesis Luther denies that the Pope has the power to forgive the sins. He made copies of it and send copies to the Castle Church in Wittenberg and they translated it from German to Latin and distributed across Europe.

The protestant reformation brought two different types of Christians, the Catholic Church and the protestant churches. The protestant reformation changed the religious practices, beliefs, culture, and also society of Christians in Europe. They challenged the authority of the Catholic Popes over regional rulers. The reformation divided Christians and reshaped political and religious values in all of Europe.
by Kimberly Dominguez

As the Renaissance values of humanism and secularism started spreding thanks to the new technology of the printing press, people started questioning, and even challenged the church authority. Moreover, the popes seemed more concerned with luxiry and political power than with spiritual matters. But the main cause to the Protestant Reformation was, when Jonanm Telzel was raising money to rebuild St. Peter´s Cathedral by selling indulgences. By paying money to the church, people thought they could win salvation.

A German monk named Martin Luther challenged this practice and others. He insist on a more spiritual and humble church. On October 31, 1517 he posted a 95 theses or formal statement on the door of the castle church. His words were printed and spread throughout Germany. This led to the Protestant Reformation. In cosequence, Pope Leo X excomunicated Luther, but his ideas were already in practice. The Lutheran church started around 1522. Also christians got divided into the Catholic church and the Protestant church; and ended the pope´s power in England. By: vicente Gomez

There are many causes of the Protestant Reformation. There was some religious causes such as: missionaries had converted the peoples of Europe to Christianity and serious abuse also had appeared in the church. The large administrative structure of the church required a great deal of money to finance it. There were cultural cause like the Italian author named Petrarch taught literature, history, and philosophy of the ancient Greece and Rome. He believed that by returning to the classics, they would began a new golden age of cultural. And of coarse there were political causes such as:the Holy Roman Emperor claimed to be the secular head of Christianity,the Kings Ranked under emperor. Followed by the princes, dukes, and counts, and in western Europe, the kings were increasing their power over the own people and against the Pope and the Emperor.

As a result of the Reformation Europe was divided between the Catholic countries of the south and the Protestant countries of the north. Many Protestant denominations developed, and they were organized in a variety of ways. In many parts of Europe, this diversity of religious life created a mood of religious toleration and a respect for the importance of the individual conscience. The Reformation also stimulated many reforms within the Catholic Church. The Church gained new purity and strength during the late 1500's and the 1600's in a movement called the counter Reformation.
by: Rebeca Evertz

Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation; Minerva Espejo
One of the causes that led to the Protestant Reformation was the invention of the printing press which promoted the desire of learning and the spread of the Bible, this gave path to new personal ideas of religion. Also people were tired of the Church taxes and watching the monarchs’ rich way of life and the corrupt system of the Church. Meanwhile monarchs were angry that they had a supreme power, the Pope, and as a whole, the Church. Monarchs started challenging the Church.

When the Protestant Reformation became evident with followers towards it and Martin Luther, Pope Leo X excommunicated him. This also brought to rise in the religious group of the Lutherans. After all these events England went back to its catholic state during the rule of Mary (daughter of Henry VIII). After her death Elizabeth I took England to a Protestant environment again, after which the Parliament set up the Anglican Church.

Martin Luther began was a person that didn’t want to destroy the Catholic Church, but to fix a few of its flaws. One thing he went against was indulgence, or selling God’s forgiveness from a sinner. In the year 1517, he went up and took a stand against Friar Johann Tetzel who sold indulgences to raise money so he can repair St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. By selling indulgences, Friar Tetzel and other Catholics thought they could buy their way into heaven. As a response to this and many other practices that he disagreed on, he wrote the 95 Theses in regards to the Church’s glitches.

Luther wanted full reform of the Church after gaining influence. His beliefs are based on three main ideas:
• People could win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness. The Church taught that faith and “good works” were needed for salvation.
• All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible. Both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities.
• All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.
by: Nicholas DeOleo

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