Latin American Peoples Win Independence

Back in days before Independence desire kicked in Latin America, they kept a colonial society. They had like some sort of pyramid that divided the different positions in the society. At the top was the peninsulares, then followed by the creoles, below the creoles came the mestizos and then next were the mulattos and enslaved Africans and by last were the Indians. By the late 1700s, revolutions started to take place in the Americas. Saint Domingue was the first Latin American territory to free itself from the European control. Today, this colony is known as Haiti, and it occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Jean-Jacques lead the independence proccess of Haiti and made it happen.
Creoles were the ones that had most rights in Latin America and therefore, they were the ones that led independence movements. Creoles were priviledged and well-educated, and they often read about the Enlightenment ideas of Europe and even traveled to Europe to see how everything works which is what inspired them to start their independence process. Some of the famous leaders that contributed to Latin America's independence were Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Marti. On the other hand, Mexico gains its independence too and ends Spanish rule. The leaders of the independence of Mexica was Padre Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos.

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Saluna Chow 10A
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In Latin American society, class dictated people's place in society and jobs. At the top of the spanish-american societies were the peninsulares, people who had been born in spain, located on the iberian peninsula. peninsulares formed a tiny percent of the population. after the peninsulares the creoles followed which were spaniards born in latin american and on the bottom you found the mestizos and the mulattos. this caused as great division in latin american societies.

The French colony called Saint Domingue was the first Latin American territory to free itself from European rule. Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti, occupied the western third of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Nearly 500,000 enslaved Africans the vast majority of Saint Domingue’s population lived at the bottom of the social system. A leader soon emerged, Toussaint L’Ouverture, an ex-slave. Toussaint was untrained in the military and in diplomacy. Even so, he rose to become a skilled general and diplomat. It is said that he got the name L’Ouverture because he was so skilled at finding openings in the enemy lines. he guided 100,000 slaves into a revolt. By 1801, Toussaint had moved into Spanish Santo Domingo.He took control of the territory and freed the slaves.
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Luis Rafael Acta 10A

During this period Latin America were just Europeans colonies. In these colonies the society was divided in groups. The top class were the peninsulares (ppl born in Spain) who hold offices, then were the creoles (Spanish ppl born in L.A.) who couldn't hold high offices but could be officers, Below them were the mestizos, mulatto, and Indians.

Many of the Europeans colonies started to become eager to get there independence after the American and French revolution and they also knew about the enlightenment ideas. Following these believes Haiti, Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico declared their independence from the European but they past trough a great battle to get it.

Kendrick Abreu Grullon 10-A

Personal Opinion Latin American Peoples Win Independence

I think that all this was lead first for some principal setting and events that took it to this conclusion. to start i think that during this period the society or people were divided and clasified based on birth(tone of their skin color and where they came from). at the top of the social piramid were the peninsulares that were man born in Spain, then weere the creoles spaniards born in latin America, and after were the Mulattos that were a mixed culture between europeans and african ancestry. finally at the bottom were the Indians used as slaves same as africans.

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lo sigo luego i need to go :)

Eliecer Cruz 10-b

ELIECER TU YA NO ESTAS EN ESTE GRUPO ENTIENDELO, TU ESTAS EN GRUPO 3 CON EL B!!!!!

Latin American Independence The Spanish amassed great wealth and power in their American colonies through oppression, slavery and racism. An amazing variety of classes developed and created a social gap in the people. At the turn of the nineteenth century, the American-born population began to advance towards independence. The process did not happen over night. Instead, it developed slowly due to social, political, ethnic, and economic factors, and the often bloody war for independence raged for fifteen years. Enlightenment radically altered the ideas of people in Europe and America. Ideas that challenged old truths began to develop; ideas that praised individual rights such as the notion that ultimate authority in society resides with the people, not with the king, or that all people are created equal in nature and possess equal rights. The French and American revolutions were strongly influenced by these new, bold beliefs. Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the wars for independence in other parts of the globe, Latin American gained momentum to began their own revolution. America was a mixing of many different races and each caste held specific rights and limitations. Natural born Spanish had access to the advantages and held the majority of power. The wealthy Creoles were able to ascend to positions of authority, but were always a step down the social ladder from the natural Spanish. Social inequality in America caused tension among the native population. When Spain, in an attempt to centralize their administration, began replacing Creoles with Spaniards in judicial and legislative offices, the tension was escalated even further. This challenged the position and comfort of wealthy Creoles, and motivated them to support independence. “The antagonism and bitter feelings between American Creoles and those Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula who came to Latin America, helped ignite the emotional tinderbox that flared in 1810. Creole unrest was widespread when Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal in 1807. For the Latin American revolution, the timing could not have been better. The monarchs were disposed and Napoleon installed his brother as king. Spanish rebels fought the illegitimate Bonaparte in a civil war for six years. This left the colonies isolated and they rejected the authority of Spain. As a solution, they created local governments, of juntas, primarily filled with Creoles to rule in the king’s absence. Independence took different courses between regions. Some, such as Brazil, were relatively peaceful, but others, such as Peru and Mexico, were bloody. The wars for independence distinguished many brave and courageous soldiers. The names of patriots such as Bolivar, Hidalgo, San Martin, and Artigas among many others, inspire pride in the Latin America. After the revolutions began, success did not come smoothly. Counterrevolutions took back many of the initial successes from the patriots, but tenacity and devotion finally, after fifteen years, won Latin America its freedom. Independence brought new problems and challenges. The struggle to create new legitimate forms of government created differences, and political turmoil created confusion and tension. The church was attacked for being conservative and suffocating. Revolutionaries wanted to take the churches power and lands. This created clearly defined battle lines that caused enduring problems for the new nations. One of the basic ideals of the revolution was freed for all people, but this created unexpected problems. Tributes were eliminated and Indians were given rights as citizens, but the national governments quickly realized they depended on the income obtained from the tributes. Thus, the tribute was restored. The revolutionaries also sought to give the Indians freedom, and they gave them individual property rights. The Indians who were not familiar with private ownership were easily taken advantaged. As a result of freedom and the end of the communal system, many Indians were left without protection and they slid even further down the economic ladder. Political disorder and powerful leaders attempting to regulate authority marked the period after the revolutionary wars. Independence did not win Latin America its success; freedom created new problems and new challenges that had to be overcome.

Tiffani Chalas 10A

The society of Latin America was divided in 5 groups which defined which jobs you could do in the society. At the top were the peninsulares, people born in Spain. Below them, were the Creoles, Spaniards born in Latin America. After the creoles, came the mestizos, people of European and Indian ancestry. Below them, were the mulattos, people of European and African ancestry. At the bottom of the social ladder were the Indians.

In the late 1700s, colonies in Latin America tried to gain freedom from European countries due to the American and French Revolutions. The first colony to become independent was Saint Domingue, now called Haiti, on January 1, 1804. Then, in 1811, Simon Bolivar declared Venezuela’s independence from Spain and San Martin declared Argentina´s independence in 1816. Mexico´s and Brazil´s independence were almost the last ones. Mexico became independent in 1821 and Brazil became independent on September 7, 1822.

Gabriela Elias :D

in Spain at this time, the society was mainly divided into five categories, which were, first the peninsulares, which were the people that borned in Spain. next were the creoles, which were Spanish people that were born in Latin America. after this were the mestizos which were people pf mixed european and african ancestry, and last were the mulattos, which included enslaved africans and people from european and african ancestry. From here, the two most important were the peninsulares because they were the only ones that could hold high offices in spain, and the creolles which could not work at high offices but could work as officials in the military. this two where the most imporant of this society because they were the ones who had power over the land and could work for the land, so they had the wealth of Spain. In the french colony called saint domingue placed in the caribbean, called haity today, there were about 500,000 eslaves working for white. But this soon changed in 1791, when about 100,000 slaves with their leader called toussaint l' overture, revolted and were fighting for their freedom. toussaint was very efficient as a military leader and by 1801, he had already taken controlled of the entire land of haiti, and freed all africans on the island. one year later 30,000 french men went to saint domingue to seize revolution, and toussaint said that they would stop the revolts if the agreed no to enslave them. they agreed but one year later they took toussaint to a prision in the french alps, acussed of planning another attack. He died here in april of 1803.when he died, a military called jean jacques desalines continued with fight for freedon that toussaint had started.finally the first of april of 1804, desalines declared this land free from the European colonies and called it "Haiti".

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thanks tothe enlightenment ideas most latin american people win independence. all the ideas brought from europe influence. the way the masters ruled was affected directly by "Metropolis". haiti slave - led, south american: creole - led..specially Simon Bolivar (wealthy venezuelan creole) and San Martin (argentinian creole)!!! and in brazil royalty - led. Toussaint L'Ouverture led the enslaved africans independence in haiti against French master. Indians and mestizos led mexican independence.


Society in the colonial Latin America was notably divided. At the top of the social triangle were the peninsulares, or the Spanish, next came the Creoles, or Spanish who had been born in America. Next ranked the mulattos, mestizos, Indians and African slaves. The creoles enjoyed a good position in society, however unlike the peninsulares, they could not hold office. Besides this the many creoles were wealthy, and many were very well educated even going to study to Europe. In Europe they came in contact with the revolutionary ideas of the Enlightenment movement and the French Revolution. These ideas along with the United States Independence would soon wake up in them a desire to seek for the independences of their own countries.

One of these first revolutionary movements in Latin America occurred in Haiti. Unlike the other independence movements in America, this one was led by the African Slaves. The slaves rebelled against the bad treatment they received from their French masters. Toussaint Louverture rose up as their leader; however he was captured by the French. This didn’t stop the Haitians, another leader, Jean Jacques Dessalines, rose he guided the fight until he finally declared Haiti’s independence. In South America rose Creole leaders such as Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. Thanks to these to men South American countries such as Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, and Ecuador. Mexico was not left behind in this struggle for independence. In that country a priest, Padre Miguel Hidalgo, was the one to call for rebellion. Many Indians and mestizos responded to his call. Other leaders emerged until independence was finally proclaimed in 1821.
Claudia Franjul


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