Iulius (Julius/Julii/Caesar)

Julius Caesar

According to Sextus Pompeius Festus, the cognomen "Caesar" derived from caesaries, 'hair', and indicated that the founder of this branch of the family was born with a full head of hair (Julius Caesar himself was, ironically, balding).
Pliny the Elder (H.N. vii (in English)), on the other hand, says natus primusque Caesarum a caeso matris utero dictus, that the first Caesar was so called because he was cut from his mother's womb (see Caesarean section). It is not clear exactly which Caesar Pliny intended, but it is not Julius: his mother was still alive when he reached adulthood, and C-section was until modern times only sensible when the mother was dying. Too, the family name "Caesar" had already been in the family for generations before Julius Caesar's birth.
A third etymology, proposed by Ludwig von Doederlein, derives the name from caesius, 'grey'. (See Caesar in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.)
In subsequent times, some authors think that "Caesar" entered Eurasian folklore as Geser of Rūm or Khrom, Geser Khan, or, much later, Geser of Ling (after a province of eastern Tibet). Geser became a war god especially popular with central Asian military societies, known to have spread from the Seljuk Turks and Sassanian Persians to Tibetan, Mongolian, Manchu and eventually Chinese mythologies by the time of the Qing dinasty.

Julius Caesar - Caesar's family

  • Wives

First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla
Second marriage to Pompeia Sulla
Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis

Julia Caesaris Major (the elder)
Julia Caesaris Minor (the younger)

Julia Caesaris with Cornelia Cinnilla
Ptolemy XV Caesar (Caesarion) with Cleopatra VII, he would become an Egyptian pharaoh
his adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (his nephew by blood), who became the first Roman Emperor.

a grandson from Julia Caesaris and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed
Female lovers

Affair with Cleopatra VII
Affair with Servilia Caepionis, mother of Brutus


List of the Male Members of the Julii Caesar Family

The Julii Caesar Family was a subdivision of the patrician Julii family in the Roman Republic. All its members had the nomen Julius and the cognomen Caesar. This list shows some of the male members; beginning with the oldest ones, the years during which they lived and some of the important activities they performed in the Roman Republic.

Numerius Julius Caesar ( bef. 300 BC)
Lucius Julius Caesar I
Sextus Julius Caesar I (fl. 200 BC, military tribune, governor of Liguria)
Sextus Julius Caesar II (consul 156 BC)
Lucius Julius Caesar II
Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo (Vopiscus, c.130 BC - 87 BC, quaestor, aedile)
Lucius Julius Caesar III (d. 87 BC, praetor 94 BC, consul 90 BC)
Lucius Julius Caesar IV (d. aft. 43 BC, consul 63 BC)
Gaius Julius Caesar I
Gaius Julius Caesar II
Sextus Julius Caesar III (d. 90 BC or 89 BC, consul 91 BC, military commander)
Sextus Julius Caesar IV (quaestor in 48 BC, military commander in Syria)
Gaius Julius Caesar III (c. 135 BC – 85 BC, quaestor, praetor)
Julius Caesar (100 BC – 44 BC, consul, dictator, etc.)
(by adoption)
Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, 63 BC – AD 14, emperor)
(by adoption)
Gaius Julius Caesar (20 BC – AD 4)
Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC – AD 2)
Tiberius (42 BC – AD 37, Emperor from AD 14)
Drusus the Younger (Julius Caesar Drusus, 13 BC – AD 23, military commander, etc.)
(by adoption)
`Germanicus (Germanicus Julius Caesar, 15 BC – AD 19, military commander, etc.)
`Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, AD 12 – AD 41, Emperor from AD 37)

Statue of Augustus
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