Imperial China Collapses

Summarize the collapse of Imperial China and the struggle between the Nationalists and Communists for control over China.

In 1911, the revolutionary alliance succeeded in overthrowing the last emperor of the Qing dynasty (which had ruled since 644) and Sun Yixian became president of the new republic, he wanted to establish a government based on the “three principles” first nationalism, second people’s right and third people’s livelihood, but Sun lacked the authority and military support to secure national unity and he had to turned the presidency to the general Yuan Shikai, he didn’t practice the democratic ideals of the revolution. After he died a civil war broke out, and the authority fell into the hands of warlords or powerful military leaders.

Nationalist and communist were fighting a civil war when Mao Zedong started recruiting peasants to join his Red army and trained them in guerrilla warfare. Nationalist attacked a lot of times the communist but failed to drive them out. While a civil war was fought, Japanese forces took advantage of China’s weakening satiation. This threat forced an uneasy trace between Jiang’s and Mao’s forces and own kind of communism.

kimberly dominguez & Jose McKinney

The rise of the Kuomintang, which was the Nationalist Party in China, came around the late 1900s to overthrow the Qing Dynasty that has been around since the mid-1600s. They were led by Sun Yixian who became president in 1911 after the fall of the Qing Dynasty and appointed the “Three Principles of the People”: (1) Nationals, (2) People’s rights, and (3) People’s livelihood. Since he did not have much authority and military support, he handed over the presidency to general Yuan Shikai. Many considered him a threat since he betrayed democratic ideals of revolution. As a result of his death in 1916, civil war broke out in China. While the civil war went on, Mao Zedong and others met in Shanghai to organize the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He believed that the true revolutionaries in a rural country were the peasants. While he gained support from the peasants, Lenin decided to send military advisers and equipment to the Nationalists in order to joining them with the Chinese Communists. When Sun Yixian died in 1925, Jiang Jieshi headed the Kuomintang and was disliked very quickly for being corrupt and becoming less democratic. As a result, many people began supporting the Chinese Communist Party. In April 1927, Nationalists alongside armed gangs nearly wiped out the Chinese Communist Party.

As the civil war broke out in 1930, Mao recruited peasants in the southern part of China and trained them in the guerrilla warfare. Although outnumbered by the Nationalists’ army of 700,000 men, they held their position in their caves of the southern mountains. The communists’ were facing defeat when they decided to flee to the northwestern caves of China in a 6,000-mile journey with only 100,000 soldiers. As many as 8,000 communists survived the Long March since others were killed either by hunger, cold, or battle wounds. Meanwhile, the Japanese took advantage of China’s internal conflict and launched an all out invasion of China beginning with the takeover of Manchuria, an industrialized province of China. They bombed cities, villages, and farms killing thousands more by starvation. After the attacks, Mao’s and Jiang’s forces quickly united to fight the Japanese but failed to do overrun them. As the National Assembly met, both forces met to settle an agreement to end the civil war and promote changes on Sun Yixian’s “Three Principles of the People”.
*Nicholas De Oleo*

China is an extensive land with one of the world’s oldest civilisations. The achievements of the the various imperial families and their subjects provide the world’s oldest and richest culture.By the end of the 19th century however the empire was in terminal decline. It was torn by internal rebellion, corruption, inefficiency, opium abuse and a stultifying conservatism which frustrated all attempts at reform and regeneration. To make matters worse the long despised foreign devils, making full use of their technological advances, humiliated the Chinese in a series of aggressive wars lead by the British in the first Opium War and the first of the “unequal treaties” that followed.

The rise of Nationalism in china overthrew the Imperoalsim Yuan Shikai its leader established, the 3 priciples
2)Peoples Right
3)Peoples livelihood
After a time people started to revolt since Shikai had corupted peoples democracy, as a result after his dead in 1916, a Civil War broke out, when the Communist party of Mao zedong rose to power. Mao Zedong allied together with Lenin. Mao Zedong lacked some military tactic and inteligence at all since he called up for his Red Army peasents which he failing tried to train . Once again another "Naitonalist party" rose thanks to the Jiang Jieshi.

By:Ricardo Baio

The Kuomintang or the Nationalist party succeeded in overthrowing the last emperor of the Quin dynasty (1911). I n 1912, Sn Yixian became president of the new Republic of China. he wanted to establish a government based on the “three principles” but the Chinese people do not have a natural spirit. After Sun Y headed the Kuomintang ixian death, Jiang Jiesh while Mao Zedong headed the communist party. In April 1927, nationalist troops and armed gangs moved into shanghai. The Nationalist wiped out the Chinese Communist party; and in 1928, Jiang became president of the Nationalist Republic of China. The Communists ´deep-seated rage over the massacre erupted in a civil war that would lat until 1949. While a civil war was fought, Japanese forces took advantage of China’s weakening satiation. This threat forced an uneasy trace between Jiang’s and Mao’s forces and own kind of communism.
vicente Gomez

The Kuomingtang, or nationalist party, led by Sun Yixian overthrew the Qing dynasty. In 1912, when Sun became president he established The Three Principle of People. Nationalism, People’s right, and People’s livelihood. In 1917, China joins WWI in the allies’ side, hoping they would return their land, but unfortunately Allied Leaders gave them to Japan. When the news of the Treaty of Versailles reached Beijing, over 3,000 angry students gathered were outraged. Also, workers, shopkeepers, and professionals joined the revolt.

In 1921, Mao Zedong starts to develop its own brand of communism. In 1925, Sin Yixian dies, and Jiang Jieshi headed the Kuomintang. He promised democracy and political rights to all Chinese. Peasants believed he was not doing anything to improve their lives, so they joined the communist party. In 1927, Jiang attacks the communists in Shanghai nearly killing all of them. By 1930, Mao and other communist leaders established in the hills of south central china. He joined peasants to his army, and trained them as guerrilla warfare. Japan trying to take advantage of China’s situation, they invaded china. Nationalists and Communists united to fight the japanese.
By:Kenny Fung

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