Europe Faces Revolutions

Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Nationalism has been an important factor in the development of Europe. In the 19th century, a wave of romantic nationalism swept the continent of Europe transforming the countries of the continent. Some new countries, such as Germany and Italy were formed by uniting smaller states with a common "national identity". Others, such as Greece, Poland and Bulgaria, were formed by winning their independence.
The French Revolution paved the way for the modern nation-state. Across Europe radical intellectuals questioned the old monarchical order and encouraged the development of a popular nationalism committed to re-drawing the political map of the continent. By 1814 the days of multi-national empires were numbered. The French Revolution, by destroying the traditional structures of power in France and territories conquered by Napoleon, was the instrument for the political transformation of Europe.
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-Kenny R. Gomez

Nationalism takes root in Europe

The seeds of change left by Napoleon began, for no given reason, to sprout in Europe. Once again different ideas pursuing different goals emerged, each one having its own group of people, its own point of view. Hete we find nationalism taking roots just to find all these ideas, and erasing them bit by bit. Nationalism was taken as a change to be grouped or to separate, since some areas wanted to come together as a nation-state while others wanted to break apart, since the nation they were part of aknowledged the fact that various peoples lived in the same land, which was against nationalistic beliefs.

This is why Greece fought to be free from the Ottomans, because they sought to form a nation in which they could keep alive the feeling of how they shared a history, theyre culture. The Belgians fought against the Dutch to emerge as a separate country, and Italian loose states were brought together. The Polish tried to separate from Russia, but their attempts of freedom didnt work out as they had expected.In Austria liberal uprisings begin, in which they were looking forward to a self-government of Hungary, and Bohemian independence. In France governors were put by favoritism rather than by their capacity, in the end they choosing Louis- Napoleon, he being the nephew of the famous Napoleon Bonaparte, with him coming the first time they had a stable government in ages. Russia also overcame changes, they had been quite slow in reforming themselves, this problem being solved by Alexander II, who freed serfs at last. Saldly, as it happens to all great leaders, when there is a large population which is affected by great reform, they solve it by assassinating the ruler.

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Gaby H. (:

In Europe, during the XIX century, two main forces were being pulled upon by each other to create stability among society and politics. One was nationalism: the desire to be free of rule by foreigners, especially those of a different faith, such as Eastern Orthodox rather than Roman Catholic. The other force was imperialism: the belief among rulers that ruling over others was their privilege regardless of the will of the people being ruled — a privilege they claimed or believed was theirs in accordance with the will of God.

Nationalistic issues date back to the 1850s, which include the "Romanian Question," the French Revolution, the unification of Italy, and the unification of Germany.

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[Photo of the Storming of the Bastille. This was the beginning act of the French Revolution.]
- Lily Sanchez

in the first half of the 1800s a group of philosophies - the conservatives, the liberals, and the radicals. As these groups grew with followers many issues developed creating nationalism. nationalism would then make the gap between these two groups smaller. the development of nation-states also occurred.
The sense of nationalism caught up in Greece and Belgians, who cut loose from their "owners." with these breakouts came revolts, in which radicals participated. After Louis-Philippe lost elections in France a new governor took over and established a republic. this republic fell apart quickly also dividing the groups of radicals. later in 1848 Louis-Napoleon was elected president. later on, after 4 years he became emperor Napoleon III, as a ruler he promoted industrialization. as in France change also occurred in Russia.
- gabriela j

NATIONALIST UPRISINGS IN EUROPE

Nationalism is the belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history. Nationalism gave way to many positive influences such as the overthrow of colonial rule; democratic governments in nations throughout the world; and competition among nations spurring scientific and technological advances. Most of the people who believed in nationalism were either liberals or radicals, whom sometimes led the struggle for constitutional government and the formation of nation-states.
Greece is a very good example when it comes to talking about Nationalism. Greece tried to become independent and so rebelled against the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, which they belonged to. Another example of Nationalism comes from the Belgians declaring their independence as well from Dutch control. The Polish were also rebelling against the Russians control. Little by little, nations were becoming independent by the idea of Nationalism. The leaders of nations under other nation's control realized they needed to become their own nation and follow their own beliefs.

Nationalism develops

While conservatives, radicals, and liberals debated about problems of government a movement named nationalism was growing, this basically meant that you were more loyal to a group of people who had the same culture and history as you did instead of being more loyal to your king and/or empire. This movement disappeared the lines that separated the three political theories of: radicals, conservatives, and liberals.

From this moment on any nation that had its own government was named a Nation-State, the duty of this nation-state was to defend the nation’s territory and the people’s way of life in the territory. IN 1815 France, Spain, and England could already be called nation-state. Most believers of the nationalism movements were either liberals or radicals, by believers I mean that they were the ones who spread the movement the most during this time.
-Luis Restituyo

Nationalism in Europe

The French Revolution made way for the modern nation-state. Across Europe many people questioned the old monarchial order and encouraged the development of a popular nationalism devoted to re-drawing the political map of the continent. The French Revolution, with the destroying of the fixed structures of power in France and territories conquered by Napoleon, was the instrument for the political transformation of Europe. Revolutionary armies carried the slogan of "liberty, equality and brotherhood" and ideas of liberalism and national self-determinism. National awakening also grew out of an intellectual reaction to the Enlightenment that focused on national identity and developed a romantic view of cultural self-expression through nationhood. The key promoter of the modern idea of the nation-state was the German G. W. F. Hegel. He argued that a sense of nationality was the cement that held modern societies together in an age when dynastic and religious allegiance was in decline. In 1815, at the end of the Napoleonic wars, the major powers of Europe tried to restore the old dynastic system as far as possible, ignoring the principle of nationality in favor of "legitimism", the assertion of traditional claims to royal authority. With most of Europe's peoples still loyal to their local province or city, nationalism was confined to small groups of intellectuals and political radicals.
Erialbania Lopez

Nationalism arose as conservatives, liberals, and radical debated government issues. Nationalism is the sense of identity with the nation and that the greatest loyalties of the individual lie, not in a king or empire, but in the people who share a common culture and history. The rise of Nationalism was due to the spread of democratic ideas and the growth of an educated middle class. Language also played an important role in the development of nationalistic feelings. Instead of having a monarch decide how they would be governed the people wanted to decide it for themselves.The majority of those who believed in nationalism were radical or liberals where usually the liberal middle class led the constitutional government and the formation of nation-states.
Though the concept was relatively strong, it was harshly put down time and time again. Many of the victories liberal's gained were soon lost to conservatives within the year. Revolutionaries were unsuccessful in uniting themselves or their nations and conservatives regained the nerve and power hay had once lost. By 1849, all the progress that had been made was reversed so that Europe had practically returned to the conservatism that had controlled governments before 1848.
-Genesis A. Landestoy


Ely

Many countries throughout the world gained independence, thanks to revolutionary ideas of the Enlightenment Era and the American Revolution. Nationalism, this word, became a movement, an idea ,a force. It could be a force to unify but also to break up. Those who shared cultural and religious traditions wanted to become one and free themselves from the outsiders in their lands, while those who despised cultural mixes in their regions, and wanted to add themselves to other countries, demanded separation. This demands began gaining power and eventually, it triggered revolutions and movements which the people fought for their right to be part of or separate of a certain group. Three aging empires weakend beacuse of this: The Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. Internally they had various ethnic groups who took them to the grave. As you could see it was such a big thing that was happening, that nationalism even broke down these empires. Because of nationalism all the important events to come, such as Germany becoming a great power, happened, and like the domino effect caused many more important things remembered in history as well.


Liberal and nationalists uprisings challenged the old conservative order of Europe. Basically its characteristics are.
Conservative – Usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe.
Liberal- Mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners would vote.
Radical – favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution. Liberty, equality, and brotherhood.
This form of thinking triggered the French Revolution
-Jonathan Vargas

Nationalism is the devotion to one's national assembly. One cause of the escalation of nationalism was Europe's political boundaries. Conservatives, liberals, and radical pondered about these government ways. As a well-read middle class blossomed, democratic contemplation did as well for people wanted to take matters into their own hands and bring down the monarchy supremacy. However, each philosoph had its own approach to best serve the people:
*Conservative – Usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe.
*Liberal- Mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners would vote.
*Radical – favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution. Liberty, equality, and brotherhood.

When a nation had its own independent government, it then became a nation-state. Bonds that created a nation-state were culture, history of a common past, language, religion, nationality, and territory.
-Priscilla Franjul

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