Aggressors Invade Nations

Compare the attempts by fascist nations to gain power with the efforts of democratic nations to preserve peace

Italian fascist leader Mussolini's plan was to build a cononial empire in Africa, similar to the Brith and French empires. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in revenge to the resistance of 1890s against Italy. This time, however, the archaic weapons of the Ethiopians were no match to the tanks, airplanes and poisonous gas of the Italians. Ethiopia then called for help of the League of Nations, but in order to maintain peace in Europe, Britain and France did nothing and let Mussolini continue his conquest. Not only did Italy attempt to expand it's territory, but also Germany, who invaded the Rhineland in 1936. The occupation of the Rhineland marked a turning point, since it strengthened Hitler's power and switched the power's balance to Germany's favor. That same year, Mussolini and Hitler decided to make an alliance which became known as the Axis Powers, along with Japan.

In contrast, the democratic nations of France and Britain, who were both dealing with serious post-war economic problems, were trying at their best to keep peace and avoid war. The United States, for example, passed three Neutrality Acts in 1935, which banned loans and sale of arms to nations at war. Hitler decided to annex Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich in 1937, and although the Treaty of Versailles forbid the join of Austria and Germany, the French and British decided to stay away from it.

By the mid-1930s, Germany and Italy seemed to be more inclined on militaray conquest while the major democracies like Britain, France, and the United States were preoccupied with their economic problems at home that they longed to remain at peace. with the world moving towards war, many nations looked up to the League of Nations for support. but ironically the League of nations had three countries that posed a great threat to peace-Germany, Japan, and Italy.When Japan seized Manchuria, Many league members vigorously protested, Japan ignored the protests and withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933.

The League's failure to stop Japan encouraged European Fascists to plan aggresions of their own. Italy has always dreamed of having a colonial empire in Africa like those of France and Britain, so Italy doesnt stop when he sees Ethiopia, one of the only three independent nations Africa still has. the Ethiopians had successfully resisted an Italien attempt at conquest in the 1890s, to avenge that defeat, Mussolini ordered a massive invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. the Italiens won almost immediately. In Germany, Hitler defies the Vervailles Treaty. the treaty forbade Germany to enter a area called Rhineland, an area between Germany and France. on march 1936, German troops entered Rhineland, the French were unwilling to risk a war. the British then urged an appeasement, which means giving in to an aggressor to keep peace. this reoccupation of the Rhineland will soon mark a turning point in the march towards war.

Japan invaded Manchuria and the league failed to stop them , this inspired the other European Fascists to plan their own aggression. When the Fascist-Italian leader Mussolini ordered a massive invasion of Ethiopia in October 1935, the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations. The members did nothing. Britain continued to let the Italian troops and supplies pass. By letting Mussolini have Ethiopia, Britain and France hoped to keep peace in Europe. Hitler decided to undo the Versailles treaty. He rearmed Germany and when Hitler took Rhineland Britain gave in to keep the peace. Germany, Japan, and Italy made an agreement and became the Axis Powers.

Instead of taking a stand against Fascist aggression, Britain and France made adjustments, hoping to keep peace. Both nations were dealing with serious economic problems and after World War war they had a strong desire to stay away from wars. Britain and France decided to let the Fascistis take all the land they wanted instead of fighting them.

As we know the Treaty of Versailles denied central power to build military power but it failure to stop them to turn into Fascism for aggression later. The nation of Italy and Germany dreamed to rearmed again and build a vast empire over all Europe. Mussolini started to move into Africa to build up a colonial empire, they invaded Ethiopia with airplanes, tanks and etc even though Ethiopians have spears and sword they were no match for them and they surrounded. While in Germany as they were limited with the Treaty the Fuhrer didn’t give a mind on it and started rearming his troops and conquer the Rhineland river in order to take the industries in it to create weapons and boot’s up the economy.

Compared with the democratic countries nations like France and Britain maintain their distances to war and made concessions hoping to keep peace over Europe even though they were dealing with serious economic problems caused by the Great Depression. Also The U.S. began a movement of isolation in which they would not interfere on outside problems, they even signed a Neutrality Acts.

Around the 1930s, the world was closer to war. Many powerful nations were too busy dealing with their own crisis, so other strong nations took advantage of the situation and invaded other territories. These nations were known as aggressors, which included the nations of Japan, Italy, and Spain. At first, Japan was democratic and peaceful, but when the Depression of 1929 struck and affected Japan, many people revolted. This allowed Japanese militarists to rise and take control of Japan's government and established an emperor as a symbol of power. The militarists thought that in order to solve Japan's problems, they needed to conquer other territories to create colonies, which made them invade the nations of Manchuria and China. In Italy, Mussolini wanted to create a powerful empire in Africa, so he invaded Ethiopia. In Spain, a civil war erupted and Francisco Franco became Spain's new facist dictator.

In an effort to preserve the peace, several democratic nations took some measures. The United States wanted isolationalism and therefore passed the three Neutrality Acts. Britain and France called for the Munich Conference to have peace talks, and the Nazis and the Soviets signed a Nonaggression Pact.

By: Michelle Pelletier

Japan remained prosperous, but military leaders gained control of the country. Unlike fascist in Europe, the militaries did not try to establish a new system of government. they wanted to restore traditional control of the government to the military. They weren't strong leaders like Mussolini or Hitler, they made the symbol of state power. The League's failed to stop Japan encourage of European Fascists to plan aggression of their own. Then, Mussolini wanted to build an empire like England and France, so he decided to attack Ethiopia. Then we have Mussolini and Hitler making agreements, after Hitler defies the Treaty of Versailles and helping dictator Franco in Spain when it faced a civil war. Then Britain and France were struggling to preserve peace since they had economics problems after the Great Depression. To finish all this war, Mussolini made the Munich Conference with Germany, Italy, France, and Britain. Later after that meeting Hitler took Czechoslovakia. Then France and Britain, asked the Soviet Union to stop Hitler's aggression. Stalin came to an agreement with Hitler. Communist Russia and Fascist Germany will never fight each other.

Hitler had long pledged to undo the Versailles Treaty; he wanted to make Germany great again. When Germany announced that they would not obey the restrictions placed on them, the League issued only a mild disapproval. The League’s failure to punish Hitler only encouraged him to risk more. Hitler ordered troops to move into the Rhineland. The French did not want to risk war and the British urged appeasement, giving in to an aggressor to keep peace. Hitler than allied Germany with Italy and Japan and these countries came to be called the Axis Powers. Hitler announced his plans to annex Austria and Czechoslovakia. In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria. Great Britain and France did not come to their side. Hitler than moved his sights to Czechoslovakia. The Czechs refused Hitler’s demands and asked France for help, but once again Britain and France chose appeasement.

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